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Case - lesson “The key to all the locks”
Case - lesson “The key to all the locks”

Section: Human values

The level (grade): 7-8

Subject: The history of discovery and progress

Objective: To generalize and systematize the knowledge of the different keys. To expand the cryptographic knowledge.

What information is waiting for me here?

  • What are the modern locks and keys to them? Why did man invent the cipher?
  • Why do birds fly in formation?
  • How to find the key to success?
  • What the fundamental and practical knowledge will be useful for me?
6 scans of the subjects, phenomena and practices:

The keys are different. Some people hearing this word imagine a bunch of keys to open and close the lock, others mean see wrench, adjustable or pipe wrench for screwing, unscrewing or unsealing something. Others see the security key. Motorists think about the ignition key in the car.

And for some people, the key is associated with the music, and they imagine a sign that stands at the beginning of musical strings.


For many people, the key is the clue to some secret cipher. Some under this concept imagine key, as a source of water that makes its way from the bowels of the earth. But others see a wedge, which is formed by birds in flight.

And what associations with this word do you have?


Man invented lock to close the door and to secure the personal property. Locks can be: doors, safe, car, garage, furniture, suitcase, etc. As well as mortise, overhead, wall and a stuff like that. And one of its key elements is the key locking. Just as locks, keys are full of diversity and external manufacturing method.

What is the difference between them? Every lock is unique in its own way, and each of them has its own way to be opened. Key configuration dependents on the castle species.


• Cylinder shut-off device is the most common. It has a special secret mechanism. This locking device has the greatest number of keys.

• English castle has key, which elements for opening are located on both sides.

• Cross key is similar to a screwdriver, but has teeth for secrecy.

• Swedish key has complex cut surface.

• Keys with a perforated work surface. These keys instead of the teeth have recesses.

• Lever locking device. The keys except its teeth and grooves on the edges have longitudinal projections on the working surface. The more protrusions, the greater its secrecy.

According to the principle of operation keys can be key, code, electronic.

Magnetic, racks, and electronic locks, which have their own unique keys, are also spread.

The most modern solution for equipping doors with additional protection is electronic locks. Application and functionality of such locks is huge. In addition to the basic mechanical key is used the electronic system with the help of which you can securely encrypt and use additional functions.


What types of electronic locks are? Electronic locks have a wide range of possibilities and different operating and functional:

• Locks that have an electronic (a magnetic key), which is recorded on special media.

• Combined Locks. Such locks can be opened with a key and a code, an electronic key and mechanical, as well as with a finger and PIN.

• Multifunction locks. Such locks can be opened with a full access system where all control is concentrated in a single device.

Look at the coolest car key BMW i8.

This key has mounted LCD display, which shows a lot of useful information about the condition of the car.


The display has the ability to show information about energy balance in the batteries, the time to fully charge, fuel range, the nearest charging station and other parameters.

Perhaps this device provides remote and other functions, such as heating of the passenger compartment, or check whether the door is locked. But such details about the key capabilities are kept secret.


Keys and encryption with the key has been and remains a popular set of centuries. And the person concerned with the question: is it possible to come up with such a method of encryption to encrypt the message to everyone, and to decrypt - just knowing the secret key?

The code is a system of text-key, which ensures the privacy of transmitted information.

The encryption general rule is encryption algorithm, but a certain way of encryption or message encoding, called the key.

Total encryption system in the form of the scheme:


This scheme says that we have the sender and recipient of the message, as well as an encryption algorithm and a specific key by which the sender can encrypt the message, and the recipient to decrypt it.

Caesar cipher certainly is on everyone's lips. This is one of the most popular and simple ciphers.

It is a type of substitution cipher in which each letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet. For example, with a left shift of 3, D would be replaced by A, E would become B, and so on. The method is named after Julius Caesar, who used it in his private correspondence.

Caesar cipher

Mathematical model of the Caesar cipher is:

y = (x + k) mod n

x = (y – k) mod n,


x – a symbol of the plaintext,

y – symbol of the ciphertext,

n – the alphabet the size

k – key.

The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets; the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions. For instance, here is a Caesar cipher using a left rotation of three places, equivalent to a right shift of 23 (the shift parameter is used as the key):


Deciphering is done in reverse, with a right shift of 3.

Polybius square

Also cryptography has popular Polybius square. The Polybius square is also known as the Polybius checkerboard. It is a device invented by the Ancient Greek historian and scholar Polybius, for fractionating plaintext characters so that they can be represented by a smaller set of symbols.

The original square used the Greek alphabet, but can be used with any alphabet.

Each letter is then represented by its coordinates in the grid. For example, "BAT" becomes "12 11 44". Because 26 characters do not quite fit in a square, it is rounded down to the next lowest square number by combining two letters (usually I and J). Alternatively, the ten digits could be added and 36 characters would be put into a 6 ? 6 grid.


Public-key cryptography


Public-key cryptography is used all over the world. It has two keys: public and private. The public key may be disseminated widely, while the other — the private key — is known only to the owner. Using the public key, any person can encrypt a message for the owner and leave it on a public server or transmit it on a public network, and such message can be decrypted only by the owner using the owner's private key. This system of paired keys is called an asymmetric key encryption algorithm.

A central problem with the use of public-key cryptography is confidence/proof that a particular public key is authentic, in that it is correct and belongs to the person or entity claimed, and has not been tampered with or replaced by a malicious third party. The usual approach to this problem is to use a public-key infrastructure (PKI), in which one or more third parties – known as certificate authorities – certify ownership of key pairs. PGP, in addition to being a certificate authority structure, has used a scheme generally called the "web of trust", which decentralizes such authentication of public keys by a central mechanism, and substitutes individual endorsements of the link between user and public key. To date, no fully satisfactory solution to the "public key authentication problem" has been found


Every autumn and spring, you can see the unforgettable spectacle in the sky, when migratory birds fly formation in warmer climes or return home.


Why do migratory birds fly a wedge? It is very simple and logical explanation. Firstly, you must know that the head of the wedge flies almost always leader - it is the "oldest" and experienced bird. Behind the leader, is flying very strong and hardy birds on both sides, they replace the leader, when it is tired. In this case, the leader going up to the end of the wedge, where usually fly very weak and inexperienced birds, but one of the birds, which was flying right behind him, leading the others. Thus, the birds can vary throughout a long flight.

Interestingly, that cries of birds, we hear - is a signal to the leader of the pack, that they are not tired and are ready to continue to fly at the same pace and with the same speed.

What happens when the leader leads the pack? When it waves its wings, behind it formed air currents that allow the birds flying back to take advantage of the air force, to save up to 25% of energy during prolonged flight. If a bird flew alone, they would get tired much faster. That is, in other words, the “key” of bird - a coherent mechanism for the conservation of energy, created by nature.


It happens that some of the birds are so tired that it has to leave the “key”. In this case, two birds flying nearby leave the “key” and with it lowered to the ground for support. After resting, they just join to another key.

If one of the birds dares to leave the common thread, it will come back a time later, because it feels the elusive severity of breaking the path separately.

And as the wings give the birds the ability to fly, let us recall the structure of the wing:


Also note that different wing characteristics are using at different flight modes.


Birds’ wings consist of two parts and perform different functions. The first group has Wing feathers.

1 - primaries, 2 - coverts, 3 - subordinate wing feathers.

The second group includes the feathers of 2nd order:

4 - primaries, 5 - large coverts, 6 - medium coverts, 7 - small coverts, 8 - primaries of 3rd order, 9 - shoulder.


The “key” is called the source or natural remedy and groundwater on the earth's surface on land or under water. Groundwater is found in cavities, pores and cracks of rocks in the upper crust. Sources are in the place where aquifers intersect with the Earth's surface.


The depth of groundwater dependents on rainfall, the season and so sources can leak, fade or bubble.

“Keys” are permanent, seasonal and intermittent. They can be fresh, saline, mineral, salty and cold, warm, hot and boiling.


Factors influencing the formation of sources:

а) Crossing aquifers such modern forms of relief, as the beams, river valleys, ravines, lake ditches;

б) Geological and structural features of the terrain;

в) Filtration heterogeneity of water-bearing rocks, and others.


Classification of sources, depending on the supply water vadose, groundwater or artesian:

• Sources that are fed via vadose, located mainly in the vadose zone. They are characterized by chemical composition and fluctuations in the water temperature. Such sources may eventually completely dry up.

• Sources that are fed by groundwater are always present, albeit subject to seasonal fluctuations, and the composition and temperature. They may appear because of erosive manifestations of rocks in contact with different permeability to water and associated reservoirs or variability with tectonic disturbances.

• Sources artesian waters are among the most constant, as their power is due to the discharge of artesian basins.

One of the largest springs in the world is the source of Vaucluse, located in Provence in France:


Fontaine-de-Vaucluse is located 26 km east of Avignon and 4 km east of L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue. The area got its name from the fountain of Vaucluse karst spring, the source of the Sorgue River. The depth of the source reaches 315 m.


Source Vaucluse, Provence, France, Europe. This type source has this during high water.


Perhaps you have heard about the existence of the keys to success. Everyone can succeed in life if he set himself the goal and is ready to go.


In order to be successful, there are the so-called keys. The main thing is to learn how to use them consistently and then the chances of success will increase.

The key that opens the door to success:


• A clear statement of purpose. After all, people who have managed to achieve something, initially set ourselves the task and act. You have to be brave enough man to achieve seemingly impossible things. The purposeful man doesn’t know word "impossible." Suffice it to revise their expectations, enlarge them and take action.

• Be ready for the challenges and even failures. Learning to overcome the difficulties, a person learns to act more effectively. Therefore, errors and failures sometimes provide benefit on the way to success. After all, every one of you is not just learned to walk without falling, and to speak without mistakes.

• Using willpower. The presence of willpower separates successful people from losers. Success cannot come to a man if he has no great desire to achieve certain goals. A person can be a strong physical and intellectual development, but if he does not have willpower, it is unlikely that he will succeed in life. It is necessary to direct all desires to achieve the goal, and then there will be motivation to implement them.

Adherence the goal. This should be a key that cannot be a step back away from the course. You must give up all thoughts of defeat, and to act decisively. After all, it is the determination of the boundary between conventional interest and focused intention.


Superiority. It should be around: and in an amount and in a quality of work. Only constantly engaged in self-improvement man is able to succeed. And during the transition to a new level of success should increase and strip cultivation. Otherwise no headway can lead to degradation and regress.

• Vision. It is extremely important to learn how to focus on the result, to see the goal has been performed, then work will seem easier, through which you get to the cherished dream.

• You have to go to success, not success to you. After all, hardly a lazy and passive people can succeed, that laziness in some point will still have the effect of regressing and pulling back. Successful are only those who are willing to constantly work and improve.


In musical notation, a key signature is a set of sharp or flat symbols placed together on the staff. Key signatures are generally written immediately after the clef at the beginning of a line of musical notation, although they can appear in other parts of a score, notably after a double barline.

Musical keys are divided into::

а) Treble clef;

б) Bass clef;

в) Viola key.

Treble clef or French violin indicates the location of the note "Sol" on the first octave and looks like:


Bass clef, Baritone clef and Sub-bass clef indicate the location of the note "Fa" and look like:


Alto clef, Tenor clef, Baritone clef, Mezzo-soprano clef and Soprano clef indicate the location of the note "Do". They look like:


Baritone clef can be denoted as the key of the "Fa"-group and the key of the "Do"-group.


If you look closely at the scale of the note "Do" small octave to the notes "Before" the first octave in both keys, you will notice that the Baritone clef has a different designation that does not change the location of the notes on the octave. That is, the Baritone clef, which refers to the "Fa"-group indicates the note "Fa" small octave. This note is located on the center of line stave.

But Baritone clef "Do"- group indicates the note "Do" of the first octave. This note is located on the top of line stave. In this scheme, "Fa" small octave is designated as "f", and "Do" the first octave marked as «c1».

Let's take the example of the same melody, consider how it will look in different clefs.

Treble clef example. In the Sol- key this tune has the form:


Here is an example of the same melody notes in the bass clef



Now consider how look like the same melody in the Alto clef.


As you can see, in the presence of different keys it is easy to read notes, as they are located on the main lines of the stave, the melody is written in a more compact, and there is no need for additional lines.

Lesson summary





As a result of Case Knowledge Hypermarket can add the following findings of students:




What the 3 sites helped to get information?







To help the student-coach:








Where to take information of the Case:










Locations of the lesson:

            Case lesson takes place in the classroom. Carrying classes at the museum, park, library...



Teams of boys and girls.

Targets for them:

1. What is the principle of the doorphone key?

2. What would you like to achieve in life? Try to build a ladder of success.



  1. What keys do you use in everyday life?
  2.  Have you ever used a decoder for correspondence with friends?
  3.  What is the security key of Wi-Fi network?
  4.  Why do birds fly and swim in the pond in wedge formations?
  5.  What is the difference between the Baritone clef "F"- group and "Do"- group


Duration of Case:

90 minutes(double lesson).


Ability to circuit classes with student-double for: 



The results produced and competence:

  •  Compile and organize knowledge about the different keys. To expand knowledge in the field of cryptography.
  • The ability to quickly finding the necessary information on the topic.
  • Getting practical skills of application of the information received.

• Obtain specific knowledge of technology, psychology, mathematics, and other sections (shown in the scans). 



The keys to success, treble clef, bass clef, alto key, an electronic key, source, code, cryptography, mechanical key 



Paytinka Svitlana


Took part in case apgrade:



The End

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